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Resolved: The benefits of the United States federal government’s use of offensive cyber operations outweigh the harms.


Resolved: The benefits of the United States federal government’s use of offensive cyber operations outweigh the harms.

Table of Contents Amisha’s reading list/key articles   UK and Russia are already at war (2019). This describes the current state of global cyber warfare and explains how it is ongoing.   White House authorizes offensive cyber operations (2019). This article explains the new Presidential Decision Directive that authorizes the use of offensive cyber operations against enemies. I don’t think it has any evidence in it, but it is useful

(PRO): Human Rights Answers

No internal link evidence – Even if Europe joining would reduce human rights pressure, there is no evidence that human rights pressure will work Non-unique: China is violating human rights now despite the EU not joining. European Commission and HR/VP contribution to the European Council, March 9, 2019, EU-China: A Strategic Outlook The ability of EU and China to engage effectively on human rights will be an important measure

(Pro): Climate Change Answers

Their argument is morally reprehensible.  The Con has no alternative to development led by China and the BRI, so their argument is literally that people in the developing world should stay poor and suffer an early death in order to avoid a marginal increase in coal consumption relative to the developed world where wealthy people live in air conditioned spaces and jet set around the world.  There is a moral

(Pro) A2: Sex Trafficking

Turn – Poverty drives sex trafficking Erika Wright, 2019, Poverty and Its Contribution to Human Trafficking, Poverty is a compelling factor in the human trafficking industry. Human Trafficking occurs in every single country on the globe. It is a global epidemic driven by poverty. The most common countries to which victims are exported are in Western Europe, Western Africa, Asia, Arab Nations and North America. The highest destination countries

(Pro) A2: Europe Joining Reduces China’s Investment in Africa

Africa doesn’t need China’s investment, it has Europe’s investment Garcia Herald, 7-22, 19,, What the data really says, and the implications for Europe That said, China’s investment in Africa is still at the early stages compared with that of key European countries that have a colonial past in Africa, especially France and the UK. Chart 4 shows that the FDI stocks sourced respectively from the UK and France into

(Con) A2: BRI Key to China Steel Exports

Turn – Ore prices (a) Lower China steel demand lowers ore prices Hoyle, 9-3, 19,, Wall Street Journal, Chinese Steel Slowdown Slams Iron-Ore Prices Iron-ore prices posted their biggest one-month fall in almost eight years as China’s huge steel engine cools and global shipments of the commodity rise. (b) Lower ore prices boost the US steel industry Hoyle, 9-3, 19,, Wall Street Journal, Chinese Steel Slowdown Slams Iron-Ore


610 Page BRI Release (Click to View Table of Contents)

Table of Contents Download our 610 Page BRI Release.  This includes 610 pages of ready to go blocks, with evidence updated through September 1st. It is include with Public Forum ($99 for the year) and Master ($239 for the year) subscriptions. Subscribers also have access to — *An app that makes monitoring daily updates and e-courses easy. *An app that makes it easy for you to read through posts, course materials, files,


Uniqueness Fights Back: Europe Starts to Push Against China and the BRI

One of the first reactions to the BRI topic was that Pro teams would simply non-unique the Con arguments with claims that individual European countries were already joining the BRI. In the spring of 2019 this was a pretty strong argument, but there have been a number of changes that teams must keep up with and should be prepared to articulate in their debates. First, with the exception of Italy,


What is the One Belt One Road Initiative?

The One Belt, One Road initiative, which is known in its English as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a project begun by the current President of China, Xia Xinping. It is modeled after the ancient “Silk Road” that China used to trade fabrics, goods, and metals: Russo, August 2, 2019, Federica Russo is an Italian freelance writer focused on Chinese economic engagement in the global scene, as well