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Belt Road Initiative Topic Terms

Belt and Road (BRI, OBOR). Land, sea, and now digital connections that are being built under Chinese leadership.

Bipolarity. Bipolarity refers to the idea that there are two global leaders. For example, most people say the US is the current global leader but that we soon will have two global leaders — China and the US

Connectivity Strategy. The Connectivity Strategy is Western Europe’s strategy to respond to China’s BRI.

Corruption  Corruption occurs when individuals gain access to money they do not deserve to have when a product is created or bought and sold. For example, if a government agrees to build a hospital but the politicians take some money from the company that is paid to build the hospital. 

Cyber Security. Cyber security is security on internet networks.

Debt trap. Debt traps happen when a business, country, or person acquires debt but cannot pay it off. This is magnified when interest payments increase the amount of the debt. 

European Union (EU). The EU is an economic association of countries that adopt common economic and trade policies. They also adopt common security policies, though security is not their primary focus.

Global liberal order. The “global liberal order” refers to the international order that was created after World War II under the leadership of the United States.  This includes the institutions and ideas that promoted free trade, respect for human rights, and international law.

Great power war. Great power war is war that occurs between major powers, such aas between the US and China. 

Hegemony. Hegemony refers to the idea that there is one power leading the world.  It is also called unipolarity.

Huawei. The leading Chinese mobile company that is the global leader in 5G technology.

Belt and Road (BRI, OBOR). Land, sea, and now digital connections that are being built under Chinese leadership.

Bipolarity. Bipolarity refers to the idea that there are two global leaders. For example, most people say the US is the current global leader but that we soon will have two global leaders — China and the US

Connectivity Strategy. The Connectivity Strategy is Western Europe’s strategy to respond to China’s BRI.

Corruption Corruption occurs when individuals gain access to money they do not deserve to have when a product is created or bought and sold. For example, if a government agrees to build a hospital but the politicians take some money from the company that is paid to build the hospital. 

Cyber Security. Cyber security is security on internet networks.

Debt trap. Debt traps happen when a business, country, or person acquires debt but cannot pay it off. This is magnified when interest payments increase the amount of the debt. 

European Union (EU). The EU is an economic association of countries that adopt common economic and trade policies. They also adopt common security policies, though security is not their primary focus.

Global liberal order. The “global liberal order” refers to the international order that was created after World War II under the leadership of the United States.  This includes the institutions and ideas that promoted free trade, respect for human rights, and international law.

Great power war. Great power war is war that occurs between major powers, such aas between the US and China. 

Hegemony. Hegemony refers to the idea that there is one power leading the world.  It is also called unipolarity.

International law. International laws are laws that govern behavior between countries that have been agreed to by many countries.

Multilateralism. Multilateralism refers to the idea of countries working together.  Multilateralism can happen in a multipolar world or a bipolar world.

Multipolarity. Multipolarity refers to the idea that global power is balanced between more more than two countries or groups.  For example, maybe the EU, the US, China, and Russia will all share global power in a generally equal manner.

Renewable energy.  Renewable energy is energy such as wind, solar, and hydro (dams) that doesn’t use fossil fuel (coal, oil) to produce energy.

Silk Road. The Silk Road is another term for the BRI.The Silk Road primarily refers to the terrestrial routes connecting East Asia and Southeast Asia with South Asia, Persia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa and Southern Europe.The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty in China (207 BCE–220 CE).

Soft power.  Soft power is a type of global power based on how much a country is liked by other countries.

Surveillance. Surveillance is spying on people.

Transition wars. In history, wars have often occurred one one power rise and another power fell. Many scholars are concerned that as China rises and the US declines that there will be a great power war.

Unipolarity. Unipolarity is that idea that there is one global power. ‘It is also referred to as “hegemony.”

Unilateralism. Unilateralism refers to the idea of one country making decisions without the support and participation of other countries. For example, many people say the US acts unilaterally.

5G. 5G is the fifth generation cellular network. Some say it is 40 times as fast as 4G.

Capitals

The following cities are capitals of countries. The countries are sometimes referred to by their capitals, as this is where the primarily decision bodies are located.

Beijing. China
Brussels. Belgium (EU headquarters).
Moscow. Russia
New Delhi. India